Different types of materials for excavation
Excavation belongs to the method of shifting earth, rock or other materials by applying the tools, equipment or explosives. It comprises of earthwork, trenching, wall shafts, tunneling and underground. Differs types applications for excavation offers are found which range exploration, environmental restoration, mining and construction.
Also read : TYPES OF SHORING FOR EXCAVATION
The materials required for excavation are categorized as follow :-
- Soft/Loose Soil
- Hard/Dense Soil
- Soft/Disintegrated Rock (no need of blasting)
- Hard Rock (need of blasting
- Hard Rock (blasting is disallowed)
Usually, it belongs to any soil that complies with the ordinary utilization of pick and shovel, or to PHA WRA. Rake or other ordinary diggings are enforced which range from vegetable or organic soil, turf, gravel, sand, silt, loam, clay peat etc.
Usually, any soil that necessitates the close application of picks, jumpers or scarifiers to loosen that range from stiff clay, gravel, cobblestone, water bound macadam and soling of roads.
It is a blend of soil and water in fluid or feeble solid state.
Soft/Disintegrated Rock (no need of blasting
It is a rock or builders which are excavated or separated with crowbars. It also comprises of laterite and hard conglomerate.
Hard Rock (blasting is needed)
Any type of rock or boulder for the excavation of which blasting is necessary.
Hard Rock (Blasting is disallowed)
Hard rock necessitating blasting but where blasting is disallowed and excavation should be accomplished with chiseling, wedging or any other agreed method.
The earth work quantities are measured with the following two methods :-
It stands for the average horizontal distance among the centre of excavation to the centre of deposition. The unit of lead is 50m.
It stands for the average height through which the earth should be lifted from source to the place of expanding or piling. The unit of lift is 2.00 m for first lift and one additional lift for each 1.0m